This What Works Brief is part of a continuing series of short, easy-to-read, how to information packets on a variety of evidence-based practices, strategies, and intervention procedures. The Briefs are designed to help teachers, parents, and other caregivers support young childrens social and emotional development. They include examples and vignettes that illustrate how practical strategies might be used in a variety of early childhood settings and home environments.
Its 15 minutes before the children arrive at the Douglas County Early Childhood Center, and Mr. Ron and the other caregivers are busy preparing the room for the day. Because its Monday and the start of a new storybook and theme, the teachers are busy putting away materials from the past two weeks and getting out new materials. They have planned ahead and know that during center time the block and art centers are going to be open. Because the art center has been closed for the past two weeks, they are expecting it to be very popular. The block center, however, was open last week, so to try and maintain the childrens interest in playing there, the teachers have replaced the cars and the garage that the children were using with the blocks with all kinds of animals, another favorite accessory in the block center. In addition, for the next two weeks, the caregivers are going to exchange the bikes and tricycles theyve been using outside for two wagons that parents have donated.
The caregivers last task before the children arrive is to plan where the children are going to sit at circle time and at snack time. They talk about seating Angel, a child with poor social skills, next to Leah, a very social peer. The caregivers plan to have Leah help pass out the snack, and knowing that Angel likes snack, they count on at least a few good social interactions between the two children. They also know that Leah will be a good model for motor actions and fingerplays for Angel during circle time, and they know that she can help pass out and collect props that they plan to use.
Painting at an easel, playing a game on a classroom computer, doing a puzzle, and playing on a swing are all examples of preschool activities that young children enjoy. But these activities have something else in common. They are all primarily done individually, limiting the childs opportunities for positive peer social interactions. However, teachers and other caregivers can make many adaptations to the environment to encourage positive social interactions between children in the classroom.
One advantage of environmental strategies is that they require little adult intervention once the planning and organization are complete.
Environmental strategies are changes and adaptations that can be made to a classrooms physical environment, schedule, activities, and materials to encourage positive social interactions between children in the classroom. One advantage of environmental strategies is that they require little adult intervention once the planning and organization are complete.
Some of the changes and adaptations that teachers and other caregivers can make to maximize and promote positive social interactions include examining:
The most important way that caregivers can influence group composition is to make certain that children with good social skills are always grouped or encouraged to be involved in activities with peers who are less skilled socially. Providing access to socially competent peers, while a necessity, is not enough to promote positive social behaviors.
Arranging the physical environment and selecting activities and materials can also encourage peer interactions. For example, caregivers can:
For environmental strategies such as those outlined above to be used effectively, caregivers need planning time to examine the daily schedule, physical environment, and classroom activities. Additionally, caregivers must commit to daily implementation these strategies around routine activities in the classroom to achieve maximum benefits. For example, if at circle time, a caregiver positions Matt (a social peer) next to Bryan (a child with social deficits) but doesnt provide appropriate activities or materials, Bryan may not talk to or interact with Matt. Thus, the caregiver has missed opportunities to encourage peer interactions. Likewise, if caregivers provide toys that are intended for one child to use at a time, or if caregivers dont rotate toys and materials regularly, they lose valuable opportunities for social interaction that would have been created by making these relatively simple adaptations to the environment.
Research has shown that environments that have been carefully and effectively arranged and maintained can significantly increase positive peer-to-peer interactions. Using toys that support social interaction (e.g., wagons, painting a mural) and grouping children with social deficits with more social peers can dramatically affect the frequency and duration of positive peer interactions. As children become more engaged, inappropriate behavior is likely to decrease. Although environmental strategies require time and planning outside of the classroom day, results are often seen with little direct teacher involvement with the children. Results are truly a result of the environment. For example, replacing the tricycles with the wagons requires time before the children arrive, but once the materials are out, children tend to give each other rides and play together spontaneously, without additional teacher direction or support.
Environmental changes can be further enhanced by combining these strategies with specific social skills instruction such as the Peer-Mediated Strategies outlined in What Works Brief #8, titled Promoting Positive Peer Social Interactions.
Research on environmental strategies to increase positive peer interactions has been conducted on a wide range of children, including 2- to 5-year-old typically developing children and children with a variety of developmental and social disabilities. Intervention efforts have been successful with both typically developing children and children with mild to moderate disabilities, although research has indicated that for children with more severe social needs, intervention effects may take longer. Boys and girls benefit equally from these interventions. Because these strategies are primarily based on teacher planning and organization, they can be easily adapted to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse children.
Being near more socially competent children can both increase positive interaction and reduce problem behaviors.
As we look back at Mr. Rons classroom, we find that the environmental strategies that the caregivers put in place that morning are working well. During circle time, Leah helped Angel by modeling the motor actions to Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed, and she passed Angel a monkey used as a prop for the song. Similarly, at snack, Leah gave snacks to all the children at her table, including Angel, creating several opportunities for positive peer interactions. During center time, the newly opened art center was popular as expected, and by limiting the number of paint cups available, the caregivers created additional opportunities for peer interactions. In the block center, several children worked together to make a zoo with the blocks and animals. Providing these materials created ample opportunities for children to make play suggestions, share materials, and compliment each other. Outside, the wagons were a huge hit as children gave each other rides, pulling one another around and reenacting The Little Engine that Couldthis weeks storybook.
See the CSEFEL Web site (http://csefel.uiuc.edu) for additional resources.
Many articles, books, and curricula provide information on setting up classroom environments and using environmental strategies to increase peer interactions. For further information, see the following:
For those wishing to explore this topic further, the following researchers have documented the effects of using environmental strategies to promote positive peer interactions in early childhood settings:
This What Works Brief was developed by the Center for the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning. Contributors to this Brief were T. Bovey and P. Strain.
We welcome your feedback on this What Works Brief. Please go to the CSEFEL Web site (http://csefel.uiuc.edu) or call us at (217) 333-4123 to offer suggestions.